121 Timber Lane Jupiter Florida 33458 USA
65383 8 Mile Road South Lyon, Michigan 48178 USA
Glossary Of Terms
ALTA Survey - An ALTA survey is a boundary survey prepared to a set of minimum standard that have been jointly prepared and adopted by
the ALTA/ American Land Title Association.
AGRONOMY- The application of soil and plant sciences to golf course maintenance.
Backfill- The material used in refilling a ditch or other excavation, or the process of such refilling.
Bench Mark –A point of known or assumed elevation used as a reference in determining and recording other elevations.
Bunker- A hazard consisting of an area of bare ground, often a depression, which is usually covered with sand. Grass-covered
ground bordering or within a bunker is not part of the hazard.
Bunker sand- Sand that meets the proper criteria for bunkers.
Bushel- A unit of volume or capacity in the U.S. Customary System, used in dry measure and equal to 4 peaks, 2,150.42 cubic
inches, or 35.24 liters.
Cart path – A roadway constructed of concrete, asphalt, fine gravel, quarry dust, wood products, or other suitable materials for the
purpose of facilitating movement of golf carts about the course with a minimum of inquiry to turf grass areas.
Catch Basins - Is similar to a inlet structure. The specific location with a metal grate used to collect water for drainage.
Centerline – Staking of the centerline for each hole begins at the rear of the championship tee, follows the center of the fairway, and
terminates at the center of the green.
Certified Testing Laboratory – A lab which has achieved the proper credentials for testing materials for the purpose of golf course
Check Dams – Soil erosion deterrent to collecting silt.
Clearing- The process of removing trees and vegetation.
Clean out- Pipe or joint created at the end of drain line for the purpose of flushing the main line free of debris.
Communication wire - The main wire which supplies the information through the irrigation system from the heads to satellite to the
central computer or controller.
Compaction - The pressing together of soil particles into a more dense soil mass.
Contaminated Soil - Soil such as, greens mix or sand in its purest state which has been mixed with unwanted debris such as clay, silt,
other soils, organic matter, rock, any other air borne substance that may change the chemistry of the sand.
Contour - A line referred to in the plans that indicates elevation and slope.
Contract - A descriptive article on contract documents, work involved, time of commencement and/or completion of the work, sum
payable for the work, form of progress payments, purchase responsibility and payment schedule for materials, final payment date,
and miscellaneous provisions.
Contractor - A contractor is selected to accomplish the work described in the contract which is based upon the Designers
specifications and plans.
Disked – Mechanical method of relieving compaction by turning the soil to a desired depth.
Dragging – Accomplished by using a variety of implements such as brushes, harrows, or mat to smooth the soil.
Elevations – The different contours, heights and depressions of the earth.
Erosion Control Mat- Biodegradable mat that is laid on the soil to enhance early germination of seeds and to help deter soil erosion.
Erosion Control – The prevention of silt or other unwanted debris from entering into the protected areas such as wetlands,
lakes, native areas, streams, creeks etc.
Excavation- To break, turnover, or remove (earth or sand) with a tool such as shovel, bulldozer, backhoe, scrapper, etc.
Fairway – There is no precise definition in the Rules of Golf for “fairway”. It is deemed to be an area between the tee and the putting
green included in the term “through the green”. In terms of maintenance, a fairway is that area of the course which is mowed around
height of 0.5 depending on grass species and cultural intensity.
Fairway Bunkers- Bunkers located next to the fairway on the golf hole.
Footing / Tracking- Compacting loose soils to prevent settlement and erosion.
Fumigation – Soil fumigation is used for pre plant chemical control of weeds, seeds, fun gal pathogens, nematodes insects, and rodents.
Soil fumigation is common on putting greens, tees, and quarantined areas where complete eradication of a particular pest problem is desired.
General Conditions - Specified documents outlined contractual obligations.
Germination- the successful seedling of a seed producing a live plant.
Grade Staking – Staking of elevations for earth moving, representing cut or fill, and the location of features.
Grates- The metal structure at the top of the Catch Basin.
Grassing Window – The right time of year or season to grass to plant grass and achieve the best germination possible.
Gravel- Rock fragments of the appropriate size used for the purpose of drainage. Washed and clean of any silts and contaminates.
Green Detail Design- A detailed drawing of the green.
Green Cavity – A depression created to resemble the same contours as the putting surface at a predetermined depth.
Grassing- The placing of seed, sod, and other vegetation.
Green Side Bunkers – Bunkers located next to the green.
Greens mix – Defined as root zone sand.
Grubbing- Usually performed mechanically with large equipment for the purpose of removing unwanted debris in the top soil area,
such as, roots and other organic material.
Inlet Structures- Structure created by the fabrication or using PVC for the purpose of collecting surface drainage.
Interface Liner – Plastic liner used around the perimeter of the green well to protect soil profile from cohesion and adhesion properties.
Irrigation- Either automatic, manual, semiautomatic, or subsurface that which is a water application, which valves are activated to
water the golf course at set times during the day.
Key Personnel – Employees of the contractor who hold positions of responsibilities such as, superintendents, projects manager,
Landing area – Is that portion of a fairway where the golfer should drive the ball to have the most desirable position from which
to play the next shot.
Laser Level- A mechanical means of leveling a specific area to a specific degree.
Laterals - irrigation or drainage lines that are connected to the mainline.
Mainline - Either irrigation, pipe, or drainage that carries the primary quantity of water.
Maintenance –The mowing, fertilizing, watering, and any other cultural event or application used to maintain the golf course.
Native Areas - Grasses, shrubbery or other plant material indigenous to the area.
Perm O2 Pore / Profile – Ceramic soil amendment used to enhance water retention, air retention, porosity, and CEC.
Plans – master plans delineates the property and shows the routing of individual golf holes, their yardage, and the functional
relationship between them.
Plastic Drain Pipe N12 – Corrugated ribbed pipe, with a smooth wall inside. For the purpose of drainage.
Property Boundaries – Where the property has been surveyed and marked delineating the working area.
Pump Station - The main water station on the course used by the irrigation system, to completely provide water to each golf hole.
Punch List – List generated by the Owner or Designer of items to be fixed to meet compliance of the contract and inevitably be
accepted by the owner.
PVC Pipe - Poly Vinyl chloride. Is widely used for both small and large diameter pipelines because of its high pressure rating.
Also because of the flexibility.
Rock – Hard crust of the earth that underlies and often projects through the soils cover. Any material that can not be dug or
loosened by machinery
Rock Picking - The removal of rocks and other unwanted debris by mechanical or by hand methods for preparing proper seed bed.
Rough - Not specifically defined in the Rules of Golf. It is included in “through the green” as follows: “through the green” is the
whole area of the course except (a) teeing and the putting green of the hole being played and (b) all hazards on the course. In
terms of maintenance, a rough is area of the course surrounding the green, the tee, and the fairway of each hole that is moved
at a height between 1.5 and 4 inches ( 3.8 and 10 centimeters) depending on the grass species.
Satellite – Is the controller that operates the irrigation system and sprinkler heads from a fixed remote location.
Seed - The entire structure developed from the ovule after fertilization, a mature ovule.
Seed Bed Preparation - Mechanical means of smoothing, racking, floating, the final surface with minimal compaction for the
purpose of preparation to plant seed.
Silt Fence - A woven nylon material or equal installed with stakes and buried in the ground for the purpose of controlling soil erosion.
Shaping - The creator and the creation of the plans and contours designed during construction. Performed by using a Dozer
pushing the earth into the desired location and form.
Smoothing - See dragging, but also used by mechanical blades such as box blades, bulldozers, and other equipment.
Sod - Strips or Squares of turf grass with adhering soil used in vegetative planting.
Soil – Loose surface material that can be dug or excavated. There is no clear distinction between soil and rock. Geologically,
all soils are considered rock formations.
Soil Amendments – materials applied to the soil to enhance fertility, PH, CEC, drainage, and help modify the chemical
characteristics of the soil profile.
Specifications – Detailed sections of construction such as :surveying and staking, site clearing, and rough grading. Subsequent
phases presented in other chapters include: installation of the irrigation system, subsurface drainage system development,
construction of putting greens, tees, and bunkers, final grading and pre plant soil preparation, planting, post planting care,
Sprinkler Head – A tool used for distributing water at proper pressure and GPM (gallon per minute) over a specified distance.
Stand Pipes - A vertical pipe used to create a catch basin.
Stock Pile - Predetermined location of material assembled in an orderly manner for storage.
Storm Drainage - Large diameter pipe used for the purpose of moving large volumes of water.
Surface Drainage – Water running across the surface to a predetermined location.
Survey - The staking(marking) of the land.
Swing Joint – PVC pipe connected though a series of joints and elbows attached to the sprinkler head assembled to help
eliminate broken risers due to heavy traffic or maintenance equipment.
Swales – Contours created for the purpose of surface drainage.
Tee - the area of the hole being that is specially prepared for hitting the first shot of each hole. It contains the teeing ground,
which is delineated by two tee markers.
Temporary Seeding- Seeding for the purpose of establishing soil erosion for any distributed soils that may be exposed to the
environment for long periods of time or to stabilize steep slopes.
Thrust Block – A manufactured slab of concrete or equal used for the purpose of anchoring the irrigation system to prevent joints
from weakening due to water hammer.
Tillage - Cultivation of the land. Tilled land. To prepare the land by plowing.
Turf grass - A species or cultivars of grass, usually of spreading habit, which is maintained as a mowed turf.
Turf grass Fertilizer - Include all materials containing one or more essential plant nutrient that are added to the soil to increase
the supply of available plant nutrients for the purpose of maintaining satisfactory turf grass quality.
DOT - Division of Transportation.
USGA- United States Golf Association
Valve - Are used to release water into either the distribution lines or into a sprinkler head, to retain water in a certain portion of
the water distribution system or pumping station, to maintain a specified pressure and to drain lines.
Watering - The use of the irrigation system for the purpose of watering the grass, seed, sod or other vegetation.
Water Holding pockets - Area which is intended to surface drain, to a specific area for reasons undetermined have failed, settled or
were prepared improperly and hold water.
Waste bunkers – A large area in which either native materials or imported material is used to create a feature on the golf course
intended to be played as a bunkers.
Wetlands - Protected area due to soil, drainage, or plant material outlined by government agencies to be respected by and considered undisturbed.